The objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in a southeastern human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population relative to an HIV-negative control group and to compare these findings with published reports from other geographic regions. Demographic, medical, and cytopathologic data were collected on 89 HIV-positive women receiving care at the Duke Adult Infectious Disease Clinic. Comparisons were made with 100 HIV-negative obstetric patients who delivered at Duke and with published reports from other regions of the United States and abroad. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was present in 43 (49%) of 87 HIV-positive women compared with 23% of the 100 HIV-negative patients. Two of the HIV-positive patients had invasive cancer. Comparison of these patients with patients from other geographic regions revealed similar odds ratios for the presence of CIN in HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients. These results suggest a significantly increased risk for cervical dysplasia in HIV-positive women in this southeastern population.