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Decades into the pandemic, the public health value of HIV surveillance is obvious. Surveillance is traditionally depicted as the “radar” or “eyes” of public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines it as “…ongoing, systematic collection of health data, with analysis, evaluation and interpretation of these data and prompt dissemination of the findings to public health officials and others who need to know how to help shape public health intervention, planning and prevention”. Many organizations (WHO, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the European Union, the United States Agency for International Development, and other bilateral donors) encourage, initiate, and fund HIV surveillance activities worldwide.