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The abuse of human subjects has always been, and continues to be, a problem in the United States. In spite of regulation to protect subjects, the exploitation of disenfranchised groups and the reproduction of social inequalities are entrenched in the American research enterprise. This paper argues that current approaches to protecting subjects are insufficient because they prioritize individualized responses to structural problems. What is not often acknowledged or accounted for is that the worst cases of abuse to subjects occur because of unethical treatment of groups, not individuals. Solutions are proposed to make regulation more responsive to these concerns.