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We are living in an era of “big data,” which is characterized by tremendous growth in data production, linkage, and analysis. This growth is shifting the landscape of possible opportunities and harms for public health research and practice, particularly for those affected by mass incarceration. We briefly examine the emerging role and ethical implications of using big data in public health, discuss these issues as they relate to justice-involved persons (JIPs), and suggest initial steps to promote ethical analyses and guideline development in this area.