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Translational Science: A Survey of US Biomedical Researchers’ Perspectives and Practices

December 23, 2021

This national survey aimed to identify how biomedical researchers using vertebrate animals viewed issues of significance for translational science, including oversight and public engagement, and to analyze how researcher characteristics and animal model choice correlate with those views. Responses from 1,187 researchers showed awareness of, and concerns about, problems of translation, reproducibility and rigor. Surveyed … Continued

A Review of Public Health, Social and Ethical Implications of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Programs for HIV Prevention in Sub-Saharan Africa

October 26, 2021

Ideally, the benefits of public health interventions should outweigh any associated harms, burdens, and adverse unintended consequences. The intended benefit of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs in eastern and southern Africa (ESA) is the reduction of HIV infections. We review the literature for evidence of reductions in HIV incidence, evaluate the extent to which … Continued

Biomedical Researchers’ Perceptions of the NIH’s Sex as a Biological Variable Policy for Animal Research: Results from a U.S. National Survey

August 26, 2021

Background: In 2015, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) established a policy on sex as a biological variable (SABV) in an effort to address the overrepresentation of men and male animals in biomedical research and the lack of attention to sex-based responses to medical treatments. However, questions remain regarding how U.S. biomedical researchers perceive the … Continued

The Ethics of Stigma in Medical Male Circumcision Initiatives Involving Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa

April 15, 2021

Ongoing global efforts to circumcise adolescent and adult males to reduce their risk of acquiring HIV constitute the largest public health prevention initiative, using surgical means, in human history. Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs in Africa have significantly altered social norms related to male circumcision among previously non-circumcising groups and groups that have practiced … Continued

Experiences of Menopause During Incarceration

March 24, 2021

Objective: Despite increasing representation of older women in US jail and prison facilities, their menopause experiences and access to related care remain uncharacterized. Our objective is to explore the menopause experiences of women incarcerated in jail and prison facilities. Methods: We conducted a pilot study of four semi-structured in-depth interviews with women in the community … Continued

Clinical Discussion of Medical Aid-in-Dying: Minimizing Harms and Ensuring Informed Choice

March 23, 2021

Objective The implementation of medical aid-in-dying (MAID) poses new challenges for clinical communication and counseling. Among these, health care providers must consider whether to initiate a discussion of MAID with eligible patients who do not directly ask about it. Norms and policies concerning this issue vary tremendously across jurisdictions where MAID is legally authorized, reflecting … Continued

Reconsidering Scarce Drug Rationing: Implications for Clinical Research

March 15, 2021

Hospital systems commonly face the challenge of determining just ways to allocate scarce drugs during national shortages. There is no standardised approach of how this should be instituted, but principles of distributive justice are commonly used so that patients who are most likely to benefit from the drug receive it. As a result, clinical indications, … Continued

The Costs of Contradictory Messages About Live Vaccines in Pregnancy

February 10, 2021

The increased risk of harm from COVID-19 infection in pregnancy highlights the importance of including pregnant people in COVID-19 vaccine development and deployment. Promising vaccines being developed include replication-competent platforms, which are typically contraindicated during pregnancy because of theoretical risk. However, replicating vaccines are administered in and around pregnancy, either inadvertently because of unknown pregnancy … Continued