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This essay reviews the efforts of the U.S. Human Genome Project to anticipate and address the ethical, legal, and social implications of new advances in human genetics. Since 1990, approximately $10 million has been awarded by the National Institutes of Health and the Department of Energy, in support of 65 research, education, and public discussion projects. These projects address four major areas of need: (1) the need for both client-centered assessments of new genetic services and for improved knowledge of the psychosocial and ethnocultural factors that shape clients’ clinical genetic experiences; (2) the need for clear professional policies regarding human-subject research, clinical practice standards, and public health goals in human genetics; (3) the need for social policy protection against unfair access to and use of personal genetic information; and (4) the need for improved public and professional understanding and discussion of these issues. The Human Genome Project’s goal is to have defined, by 1995, policy options and programs capable of addressing these needs.